Monday, June 17, 2013

1306.3341 (V. B. Bobrov et al.)

Universality of rotons in liquids, generalized superfluidity criterion
and helons in helium II

V. B. Bobrov, S. A. Trigger
An analysis of experimental data shows that, in addition to phonon--roton excitations in superfluid helium, there necessarily exist at least one branch of elementary excitations whose energy spectrum strongly depends on temperature. On this basis, the Landau superfluidity criterion is generalized for several branches of elementary excitations, taking into account that the critical velocity should vanish during the phase transition of liquid helium from the superfluid state to the normal state. We suppose that a new spectrum of excitations with a gap, depending on interparticle interaction, corresponds to the transition of helium to superfluid state. This gap exists only in superfluid state and disappears at the transition temperature to normal state. The phonon-roton branch of excitations has no crucial influence on superfluidity. Rotons, as well as phonons, are not the specific excitations for the superfluid helium, but exist as universal excitations in liquid state, and form the continuous branch of excitations in different liquids. This point of view is confirmed experimentally and numerically.
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